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Hu Nan
 

 Hunan is a province of China, located to the south of the middle reaches of the Yangtze River and south of Lake Dongting (hence the name Hunan, meaning "south of the lake"). Hunan is sometimes called ? (pinyin: Xi?ng) for short, after the Xiang River which runs through the province.

Hunan borders Hubei in the north, Jiangxi to the east, Guangdong to the south, Guangxi to the southwest, Guizhou to the west, and Chongqing to the northwest. The capital is Changsha.
 
Geography
 
Hunan Province is located on the south bank of the Yangtze River, about half way along its length. Shanghai lies 1000 km away, Beijing 1200 km away, and Guangzhou 500 km away.

Hunan is situated between 109°-114° east longitude and 20°-30° north latitude. The east, south and west sides of the province are surrounded by mountains and hills, such as the Wuling Mountains to the northwest, the Xuefeng Mountains to the west, the Nanling Mountains to the south, and the Luoxiao Mountains to the east. The mountains and hills occupy more than 80% of the area and the plain comprises less than 20% of the whole province.

The Xiangjiang, the Zijiang, the Yuanjiang and the Lishui Rivers converge on the Yangtze River at Lake Dongting (Dongting Hu, ???) in the north of Hunan. The center and northern parts are somewhat low and a U-shaped basin, open in the north and with Lake Dongting as its center. Most of Hunan Province lies in the basins of four major tributaries of the Yangtze River.

Lake Dongting is the largest lake in the province and the second largest freshwater lake of China. Due to the reclamation of land for agriculture, Lake Dongting has been subdivided into many smaller lakes, though there is now a trend to reverse some of the reclamation, which had damaged wetland habitats surrounding the lake.

Hunan's climate is subtropical, with mild winters and plenty of precipitation. January temperatures average 3 to 8 °C while July temperatures average around 27 to 30 °C. Average annual precipitation is 1200 to 1700 mm.
 
Region Division
 
Hunan is divided into fourteen prefecture-level divisions, of which thirteen are prefecture-level cities and the remaining division an autonomous prefecture.
 
 

#

Name

Hanzi

Hanyu Pinyin

Administrative Seat

Type

 

 

 

 

 

 

1

Changsha

???

Chángsh? Shì

Yuelu District

Prefecture-level city

2

Changde

???

Chángdé Shì

Wuling District

Prefecture-level city

3

Chenzhou

???

Chénzh?u Shì

Beihu District

Prefecture-level city

4

Hengyang

???

Héngyáng Shì

Yanfeng District

Prefecture-level city

5

Huaihua

???

Huáihuà Shì

Hecheng District

Prefecture-level city

6

Loudi

???

Lóud? Shì

Louxing District

Prefecture-level city

7

Shaoyang

???

Shàoyáng Shì

Shuangqing District

Prefecture-level city

8

Xiangtan

???

Xi?ngtán Shì

Yuetang District

Prefecture-level city

9

Yiyang

???

Yìyáng Shì

Heshan District

Prefecture-level city

10

Yongzhou

???

Y?ngzh?u Shì

Lengshuitan District

Prefecture-level city

11

Yueyang

???

Yuèyáng Shì

Yueyanglou District

Prefecture-level city

12

Zhangjiajie

????

Zh?ngji?jiè Shì

Yongding District

Prefecture-level city

13

Zhuzhou

???

Zh?zh?u Shì

Tianyuan District

Prefecture-level city

14

Xiangxi (Tujia & Miao)

??????????

Xi?ngx? T?ji?zú Miáozú Zìzhìzh?u

Jishou

Autonomous Prefecture