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Jiangsu is a province of the People's Republic of China, located along the east coast of the country. The name comes from jiang, short for the city of Jiangning (now Nanjing), and su, for the city of Suzhou. The abbreviation for this province is "?" (s?), the second character of its name. It is the province with the highest population density in China, though provincial level municipalities like Shanghai, Beijing, and Tianjin have a higher density.
Jiangsu borders Shandong in the north, Anhui to the west, and Zhejiang and Shanghai to the south. Jiangsu has a coastline of over one thousand kilometers along the Yellow Sea, and the Yangtze River passes through its southern parts. Since the inception of economic reforms in 1978, Jiangsu has been a hot spot for economic development, and is now one of China's most prosperous provinces. The wealth divide between the rich southern regions and the north, however, remains a prominent issue in the province.

Jiangsu is very flat and low-lying, with plains covering 68 percent of its total area (water covers another 18 percent), and most of the province not more than fifty meters above sea level. Jiangsu is also laced with a well-developed irrigation system, which earned it (especially the southern half) the moniker of ?? (shu?xi?ng "land of water"); the southern city of Suzhou is so crisscrossed with canals that it has been dubbed "Venice of the East" or the "Venice of the Orient". The Grand Canal of China cuts through Jiangsu from north to south, traversing all the east-west river systems. Jiangsu also borders the Yellow Sea. The Yangtze River, the longest river of China, cuts through the province in the south and reaches the East China Sea. Mount Yuntai near the city of Lianyungang is the highest point in this province, with an altitude of 625 meters. Large lakes in Jiangsu include Lake Taihu (the largest), Lake Hongze, Lake Gaoyou, Lake Luoma, and Lake Yangcheng.

Historically, the river Huai He, a major river in central China and the traditional border between North China and South China, cut through north Jiangsu to reach the Yellow Sea. However, starting from 1194 AD, the Yellow River further to the north changed its course several times, running into the Huai He in north Jiangsu each time instead of its other usual path northwards into Bohai Bay. The silting caused by the Yellow River was so heavy that after its last episode of "hijacking" the Huai He ended in 1855, the Huai He was no longer able to go through its usual path into the sea. Instead it flooded, pooled up (thereby forming and enlarging Lake Hongze and Lake Gaoyou), and flowed southwards through the Grand Canal into the Yangtze. The old path of the Huai He is now marked by a series of irrigation channels, the most significant of which is the North Jiangsu Irrigation Main Channel (??????), which channels a small amount of the water of the Huai He alongside south of its old path into the sea
Jiangsu Province spans the warm-temperate/humid and subtropical/humid climate zones, and has clear-cut seasonal changes, with temperatures at an average of -2 to 4°C in January and 26 to 30°C in July. There are frequent rains between spring and summer (meiyu), typhoons with rainstorms in late summer and early autumn. The annual average rainfall is 800 to 1200 mm, concentrated mostly in summer when the southeast monsoon carries rainwater into the province.
Region Division
Jiangsu is divided into thirteen prefecture-level divisions




Hanyu Pinyin

Administrative Seat











Nánj?ng Shì

Xuanwu District

Sub-provincial city




Chángzh?u Shì

Zhonglou District

Prefecture-level city




Huái'?n Shì

Qinghe District

Prefecture-level city




Liányúng?ng Shì

Xinpu District

Prefecture-level city




Nánt?ng Shì

Chongchuan District

Prefecture-level city




Sùqi?n Shì

Sucheng District

Prefecture-level city




S?zh?u Shì

Jinchang District

Prefecture-level city




Tàizh?u Shì

Hailing District

Prefecture-level city




Wúx? Shì

Chong'an District

Prefecture-level city




Xúzh?u Shì

Yunlong District

Prefecture-level city




Yánchéng Shì

Tinghu District

Prefecture-level city




Yángzh?u Shì

Guangling District

Prefecture-level city




Zhènji?ng Shì

Jingkou District

Prefecture-level city

Educational Instituition

Jiangsu Xishan Senior High School

Changzhou Senior High School of Jiangsu Province

Jiangyan High School

Zhenjiang Middle School