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Shan Dong
 
 
Shandong is a province located on the eastern coast of the People's Republic of China. Shandong has played a major role in Chinese history from the beginning of Chinese civilization along the lower reaches of the Yellow River and served as a pivotal cultural and religious site for Taoism, Chinese Buddhism, and Confucianism. Shandong's Mount Tai is the most revered mountain of Taoism and one of the world's sites with the longest history of continuous religious worship. The Buddhist temples in the mountains to the south of the provincial capital of Jinan where once among the foremost Buddhist sites in China. The city of Qufu is the birthplace of Confucius that was later established as the center of Confucianism. Shandong's location at the intersection of ancient as well as modern north-south and east-west trading routes have helped to establish it as an economic center. After a period of political instability and economic hardship that began in the late 19th century, Shandong has emerged as one of the most populous (94 million in 2008) and most affluent provinces in the People's Republic of China (GDP of 3.38 trillion CNY in 2009).
 
Geography

Shandong is mostly flat in terrain. The northwestern, western, and southwestern parts of the province are all part of the vast North China Plain. The center of the province is more mountainous, with the Taishan Mountains, Lushan Mountains, and Mengshan Mountains being the most prominent. The east of the province is the hilly Shandong Peninsula extending into the sea; it separates Bohai Sea in the northwest from the Yellow Sea to the east and south. The highest peak of Shandong is the highest peak in the Taishan area: Jade Emperor Peak, with a height of 1545 m.

The Yellow River passes through Shandong's western areas, entering the sea along Shandong's northern coast; in its traversal of Shandong it flows on a levee, higher than the surrounding land, and dividing western Shandong into the Hai He watershed in the north and the Huai He watershed in the south. The Grand Canal of China enters Shandong from the northwest and leaves on the southwest. Weishan Lake is the largest lake of the province. Shandong's coastline is 3000 km long. Shandong Peninsula has a rocky coastline with cliffs, bays, and islands; the large Laizhou Bay, the southernmost of the three bays of Bohai Sea, is found to the north, between Dongying and Penglai; Jiaozhou Bay, which is much smaller, is found to the south, next to Qingdao. The Miaodao Islands extend northwards from the northern coast of the peninsula.

Shandong has a temperate climate, with moist summers and dry, cold winters. Average temperatures are -5 to 1°C in January and 24 to 28°C in July. Annual precipitation is 550 to 950 mm.

With Jinan serving as the province's economic and cultural centre, the province's economic prowess has led to the development of modern coastal cities located at Qingdao, Weihai, and Yantai. In addition, Weifang and Zaozhuang are also upstart cities.
 
Region Division
Shandong is divided into seventeen prefecture-level divisions 

#

Name

 

Administrative Seat

Type

 

 

 

 

 

 

1

Jinan

 

Shizhong District

Sub-provincial city

2

Qingdao

 

Shinan District

Sub-provincial city

3

Binzhou

 

Bincheng District

Prefecture-level city

4

Dezhou

 

Decheng District

Prefecture-level city

5

Dongying

 

 

Dongying District

Prefecture-level city

6

Heze

 

 

Mudan District

Prefecture-level city

7

Jining

 

Shizhong District

Prefecture-level city

8

Laiwu

Laicheng District

Prefecture-level city

9

Liaocheng

 

Dongchangfu District

Prefecture-level city

10

Linyi

 

Lanshan District

Prefecture-level city

11

Rizhao

 

Donggang District

Prefecture-level city

12

Tai'an

 

Taishan District

Prefecture-level city

13

Weifang

 

Weicheng District

Prefecture-level city

14

Weihai

 

Huancui District

Prefecture-level city

15

Yantai

 

Laishan District

Prefecture-level city

16

Zaozhuang

 

Shizhong District

Prefecture-level city

17

Zibo

Zhangdian District

Prefecture-level city

 
 
Educational Instituition
 

Shandong University

Ocean University of China

University of Petroleum

Binzhou university

Shandong University of Science and Technology

Shandong Institute of Building Materials Industry

Yantai University

Shandong Architectural & Civil Engineering Institute

Shandong Agricultural University

Qufu Normal University

Yantai Education Institute & Yantai Television University

Qingdao University

Shandong University of Technology

Taishan Medical University

China Coal Economics College

Qingdao Institute of Architecture and Engineering

Shandong Institute of Mining Technology

Liaocheng University

Shandong Finance Institute

Shandong University of Traditional Chinese Medicine

Shandong Normal University

Qingdao Agricultural University

Qingdao Institute of Chemical Technology

Shandong Institute of Business and Technology

Weifang University

Yantai Normal College

Binzhou Medical College